- B.Sc. / B.Sc. (Hons) in Botany
- B.Sc. / B.Sc. (Hons) in Microbiology
- M.Sc. and M.Res. in Botany
Curriculum for First Year BSc
Curriculum for Second Year BSc
Curriculum for Third Year BSc/First Year BSc Honours
Curriculum for Fourth Year BSc/Second Year BSc Honours
Curriculum for Third Year BSc Honours/MSc Qualifying
Curriculum for MSc
Plant biology is a science of plant life and a branch of biology. The course includes two parts origin and diversity; and functions and their environment. First part deals with the origin of life on this planet, the organization of cell and progressive organization of tissue and organs. It is followed by the diversity of plants and their relatives, the evolutionary relationship between plant groups and how each group may have arisen. The second part deals with physiology or day to day functioning of the most complex groups of plants, growth, reproduction, heredity and plants and their environment.
This module describes the category and classification of plants and their relatives. There are five kingdoms in classification system. These are Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plants and Animals. The invisible Kingdom included Virus. Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include Plants, Fungi and Protists, whereas prokaryotic microorganisms possess lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.
Plants were of paramount importance to early man who depends upon them as sources of food, shelter, clothing, medicine, ornament and tools. This module also includes plants and their environment (hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere). Today it is known that, in addition to their practical and economic values, green plants are indispensable to all life on Earth: through the process of photosynthesis. With the increased complexity of civilization human life has become more dependent on plants as will revealed by the superficial study of economically important plants.
Plants are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. The kingdom is composed of extremely small to some of the largest organisms on the world. It includes the green algae, fungi, bryophytes, fossil, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and flowering plants. The course provides basic botanical knowledge and knows about the classification, characteristics and economic importance especially algae, bryophytes, fossil, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and fungi.
This module deals with angiosperms (flowering plants) that are the most diverse group of land plants and seed-producing plants. Angiosperms possess flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain seeds. In this course, forty nine families have been described in detail, of which three are basal family, two from Magnoliid, fifteen from Monocots and twenty six from Eudicots. The orders and families have been arranged according to the Phylogenetic System of Classification of Angiosperms Phylogeny Group (APG III, 2009). The course deals with the fundamentals of the Systematic Botany and the descriptions of the families of Angiosperms.
The purpose of this module is to provide the knowledge of genetics that is a study of genes, heredity and genetic variation in living organisms. Genes is the hereditary units which are transmitted from one generation to the next (inherited). The course provides the basic theoretical information about genetics and presents some of the experiments and reasoning through which this information had been achieved.
These modules consist such topics of Mendelian Inheritance; Gene Interaction and Lethality; Allelism and Pleutropism; The Genetics of Sex; Polygenic or Multiple Inheritance Identification of Genetics Material; Chromosome and Chromosome Structure; Linkage and Crossing Over; Polyploidy; and Physical and Chemical bases of Gene Heredity.
The purpose of module is to provide the sense of ecology which is a study of interactions among organisms and their environment. The effects of environmental factors depend on the abundance of plants and the interactions among and between plants and other organisms. Moreover, the pressure of the environment and of organisms upon each other is potent forces, which lead to new species and the continuing evolution of larger groups. The module covers the diversity, distribution, amount (biomass), and number (population) of particular organisms; as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems.
Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology and business of vegetable garden plant growing. It includes the cultivation of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design, construction and maintenance and arboriculture. The application of their knowledge, skills and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. The aims of plant propagation are improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.
The aim of this module is to provide students a broad survey of the major areas of study within the discipline of ethnobotany, including economic, social, political, religious and medicinal uses of plants and plant products. This module covers the topics: The Rise of Civilization; The Relationship between Plants and Men; The Role of Flowering Plants; The Common Vegetables; Plant Biotechnology and Propagation; and Plants Associated with Medicinal Uses.
This module concerns with medicinal plants. Angiosperms are the original source of most plant medicines. The plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds which are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food also yield useful medicinal compounds. The use of herbs and spices in cuisine developed in part as a response to the threat of food-borne pathogens. Further, the spices with the most potent antimicrobial activity tend to be selected. This module includes such topics as: Studies of Chemical Compounds of Plants which are of Value in Medicine; the Sources of Plant Drugs; and the Therapeutic Classes of Drugs.
These modules concern with plant physiology that is a study of all the internal activities of plants—those chemical and physical processes associated with life as they occur in plants. Fundamental processes of plant physiology are photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions, tropisms, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, environmental stress physiology, seed germination and dormancy, stomata function and transpiration.
In the first part of these modules, students can learn on solutions and colloidal system; diffusion, osmosis and imbibitions; transpiration; water movement in plants; phloem translocation. In the later part, students enhance their knowledge on plant physiology by learning photosynthesis; respiration; growth and development; plant growth regulators; and mineral nutrition.
In this module, students are able to learn the environmental biology that is a study of the habitats, evolution and adaptations of living organisms. The field of environmental biology focuses on the scientific study of the origins, functions, relationships, interactions and natural history of living populations, communities, species and ecosystems in relation to dynamic environmental processes. The management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. It deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapes interact. It brings together landuse planning, water management, biodiversity conservation and the future sustainability of industries like agriculture, mining, tourism, fisheries and forestry.
This module is composed of two parts: Floristics and Herbarium techniques. The first part, Floristics, is a study of the distribution, number, types and relationships of plant species in an area or areas. It is a sub-domain of Botany and Biogeography. It is the science of identifying the diversity of plants across a given geographic region. The second part, a herbarium, is a reference collection consisting of carefully selected and dried plants attached to paper sheets of standard size and filed in a systematic way. Herbaria are also the fundamental source of information for the identification and classification of plants and represents the backbone of taxonomic knowledge and thus of all disciplines in need of communicating about plants.
This module deals with the science of weed. Weed science is the study of vegetation management in agriculture, aquatics, horticulture, right-of-way, essentially anywhere plants need to be managed. The course focuses on classification, control methods and management of weeds.
Weed is a common term for any wild plant, particularly an undesired plant, growing in cultivated ground, where it competes with crop plants for soil nutrients and water. In their natural habitat, wildflowers and herbs not only provide beauty but also function in many useful ways. However, when they invade cultivated areas they often interfere with the desired crop by appropriating space, sunlight, moisture and soil nutrients. Weeds may also harbor and spread insect and fungus pest.
Cell biology is a branch of biology that studies the different structures and functions of the cell and focuses mainly on the idea of the cell as the basic unit of life.
This module covers the structure, organization of the organelles they contain, their physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, and interactions with their environment. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences, it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. It is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. Changes that affect the number and/or structure of the chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and how the body functions. Changes to chromosome structure can disrupt genes, causing the proteins made from disrupted genes to be missing or faulty. Depending on size, location, and timing, structural changes in chromosomes can lead to birth defects, syndromes or even cancer.
Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on the Earth and the variations within species. Habitat destruction has played a key role in extinctions. Factors contributing to habitat loss are overconsumption, overpopulation, land use change, deforestation, pollution and global warning or climate change. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. Conservation biology is reforming around strategic plans to protect biodiversity. Preserving global biodiversity is a priority in strategic conservation plans that are designed to engage public policy and concerns affecting local, regional and global scales of communities, ecosystems and cultures.
By studying this module, students will gain knowledge on drivers of biodiversity loss; values of biodiversity; wildlife, fisheries and endangered species; and conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. It is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation. It relies on the ability of plant cells to regenerate a whole plant (totipotency). Single cells, plant cells without cell walls (protoplasts), pieces of leaves, stems or roots can often be used to generate a new plant on culture media given the required nutrients and plant hormones.
The module is composed with sub-titles such as Benefits of Plant Tissue Culture; Equipment for Plant Tissue culture; General Requirements for Growing Tissue in Culture; Types of Plant Tissue Culture; Cryopreservation and Germplasm Storage; Rapid Clonal Propagation; and Production of Secondary Metabolities by Cell Culture
These modules deal with plant pathology, i.e., a scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). These modules offer students such knowledge as history of plant pathology, significance of plant diseases, control of plant diseases, diagnosis of plant diseases, identification of a previously unknown disease-Koch’s Rules, stages in the development of disease in plants, and the relationship between disease cycles and epidermis. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. It also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidermiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, and management of plant diseases.
Plant Systematic is the biological classification of plants. It closely allied to plant taxonomy and it deals with the identification and ranking of all plants. It includes classification and nomenclature, and enables the botanist to comprehend the broad range of plant diversity and evolution. It involves relationships between plants and their evolution, especially at the higher levels. Later, classification and description was driven by natural history and natural theology. Until the advent of the theory of evolution, nearly all classification was based on the scale of nature. Relationships are visualized as evolutionary trees (cladograms, phylogenetic trees, phylogenies). Phylogenies have two components, branching order and branch length.
This module is dealt with pharmacognosy, a study of drugs of natural origin. It is also de fined as “the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources”. Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology and the study of the biological effects that the chemicals in medicinal plants have on cell cultures, animals and humans.
By studying this module, students familiarise with plant nomenclature and taxonomy; classification, identification and histological characters of plants (leaves, stem, root, bark, flower, fruit and seed); preliminary observation; organized (cellular) crude drugs; and unorganized (acellular) Crude Drugs.
Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). It encompasses pure and applied microbiology. Pure microbiology includes virology, mycology, parasitology and bacteriology. As an application of microbiology, medical microbiology is often introduced with medical principles of immunology as microbiology and immunology. The course also provides the basic concepts of microbiology.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. It has to understand both the living world and the chemical world. Plants, animals, and single-celled organisms all use the same basic chemical compounds to live their lives.
This module deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
After finishing this module, students will be able to know importance of research in science, how to formulate and handling problems in research, how to construct research tools and framework, how to survey literature, how to design research, how to analyze, interpret and present the data, how to write reports and research papers.
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply. Plants use inorganic minerals for nutrition. Complex interactions involving decomposition of rocks, organic matter, animals and microbes take place to form inorganic nutrient ions in soil water. Roots absorb these mineral ions if they are readily available. They can be tied up by other elements or by alkaline or acidic soils. Soil microbes also assist in ion uptake. There are 14 essential plant nutrients. Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients including water are typically obtained from the soil.
The module covers ion uptake and transport in plants, mineral nutrition and yield response of plants, function of macronutrients and micronutrients, beneficial of mineral elements, relationship between mineral nutrition and plant diseases, and symptom of deficiency and toxic of mineral nutrients in plants.
This module deals with applied ecology, application of the science of ecology to real-world (usually management). It is an integrated treatment of the ecological, social, and biotechnological aspects of natural resource conservation and management. It is also called ecological or environmental technology. This module focuses on geomorphology, soils, and plant communities as the underpinnings for vegetation and wildlife management.
Plant biotechnology is a variety of techniques used to transfer beneficial traits from one plant to another. It can be defined as the introduction of desirable traits into plants through genetic modification. The course also provides technologies especially recombinant DNA, genetic engineering and biofuel. Genetic engineering is a modification of an organism’s genetic composition by artificial means, often involving the transfer of specific traits, or genes, from one organism into a plant of an entirely different species. A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion. It can be derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes.
This module covers the application of microorganisms. The course involved microbiology in the biological world, environmental microbiology, water and waste treatment, microbiology of food, beverage and medicine and bioleaching. As an application of microbiology, medical microbiology is often introduced with medical principles of immunology as microbiology and immunology. Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms. It is one of several applications within biohydrometallurgy and several methods are used to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, silver, and cobalt.
This module concerns with the molecular basis of biological activity between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and proteins and their biosynthesis, and studies how these interactions are regulated. Organelle biogenesis is the biogenesis, or creation, of cellular organelles in cells. It includes the process by which cellular organelles are split between daughter cells during mitosis; this process is called organelle inheritance.
This module introduces students to evolution, a process of change in all forms of life over generations, and evolutionary biology that is a study of how evolution occurs. It is also the change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, including the levels of species, individual organisms, and molecules. The forces of evolution are most evident when populations become isolated, either through geographic distance or by other mechanisms that prevent genetic exchange. Over time, isolated populations can branch off into new species. The course also provides origin and history of life, and followed by evolution and extinction.
Industrial microbiology is an area of applied microbiology which deals with screening, improvement, management and exploitation of microorganisms for the production of various useful end products on a large scale.
The module covers the methods of measurement of microbial growth; microbial screening, selection and strain improvement; the fermentation industry; and biodeterioration
The purpose of these modules is students to enhance the knowledge on plant physiology. It covers basic concepts in advanced plant physiology; plant respiration and physicochemistry of secondary plant products; photosynthesis: converting of radiant energy into chemical energy; assimilation of inorganic nutrients; transport and translocation; growth and development; seed physiology; and plants and the environment.
This module aims to disseminate information on the requirements and methodologies of quality control and assurance of herbal medicinal products by focusing on the importance of standardization to guarantee product uniformity, efficacy and safety. In addition, students will learn basic pharmacognosy, methods of plants analysis, plants metabolites and drugs production in this module.
Molecular Genetics is the field of biology and genetics that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. It is also the study of flow and regulation of genetic information between DNA, RNA and protein molecules. This module focuses on concepts of genes, duplication, replication, transcription, translation and application of DNA.
By studying this module, students will gain knowledge on geography of the world, division of the world into floristic region, some general aspects of plant geography, the geological history and past distribution of the flowering plants, the factors of distribution, the theory of tolerance, and the forest of Myanmar.
This module deals with evolution that is the accumulation of genetic changes within populations over time. It does not refer to changes that occur in an individual within its lifetime. Instead, it refers to the changes in the characteristics of population over the course of generation.
The module covers the topics on evolution theory, natural selection and variation, speciation, genetic evolution, and population genetics.
Microbial Biotechnology is the manipulation of microorganisms at the genetic and molecular level to generate useful products. Microorganisms are beneficial for microbial bioremediation of domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes and subsurface pollution in soils, sediments and marine environments. The ability of each microorganism to degrade toxic waste depends on the natural of each contaminant. The module also provides students to understand the scope of microbiology and biotechnology, microbiological technique in biotechnology, biotechnology in health care, microbiology and manufacture industry, biotechnology in agriculture and future aspect of microbial biotechnology.
Plants are essential to life on earth; they produce the oxygen we breathe through photosynthesis and provide much of the food we eat. Some species provide medicines and promote healing; others are used for insect control or to conserve water. Plants with dense root systems prevent soil erosion and those with brightly colored flowers attract pollinators. Plants have been used to control body functions and fertility, to poison, and to make clothing, paper and rubber. Therefore, the economic plants may be defined as being useful directly, as in food, or indirectly, as products we use or that enhance the environment.
This module deals with enzymology that is the study of enzymes, their kinetics, structure, and function, as well as their relation to each other. The module focuses on general characteristics and application of useful enzymes. It also reveals breadth and brief history of enzymology.
This module provides students to understand the field of ethnobotany and natural conservation in human societies. The module consists of such topics as Field of Ethnobotany, Data Collection and Hypothesis Testing, Ethnomedicine, Ethnobotany and Natural Conservation, Quantitative Ethnobotany and Applied Ethnobotany.
Ethnobotany is the study of the relationships between plants and peoples. It focuses on how plants are used, managed and perceived across human societies. This includes use for food, clothing, currency, ritual, medicine, dye, construction, cosmetics and a lot more.