Botany

Programmes Offered

  • B.Sc. / B.Sc. (Hons) in Botany
  • M.Sc. in Botany

Curriculum

B.Sc. in Botany

B.Sc. (Honours) in Botany

M.Sc. in Botany

Course Descriptions

Bot 1101 : Plant Biology
Plant biology is a science of plant life and a branch of biology. The course includes two parts – origin and diversity; and functions and their environment. First part deals with the origin of life on this planet, the organization of cell and progressive organization of tissue and organs. It is followed by the diversity of plants and their relatives, the evolutionary relationship between plant groups and how each group may have arisen. The second part deals with physiology or day to day functioning of the most complex groups of plants, growth, reproduction, heredity and plants and their environment.
Bot 1001 : Varieties of Plants and their Relatives
Through this study, one learns about evolution and diversity of plant groups and their ancestors and relatives. In the present text, the new concepts on the evolution of plants by endosymbiotic theory, only the green algae (Chlorophyta ) are included in the plant kingdom. The study of these text will benefit the learners more about the usefulness and or risk of the some groups of plants and their relatives.
Bot 1102 : Basic Concepts of Applied Botany
The course includes four parts. First part deals with seed technology which comprises the methods of improving the genetic and physical characteristic of seed. It involves such activities as seed development, evaluation and release, and seed production processing, storage and quality control. The second part deals with important role of photosynthesis in our ecosystem, essence of photosynthesis, carbondioxide and carbon sink; water, transpiration and cooling effect to our surroundings; light and shading effect; chlorophyll; greenhouse gases and plant growth. Third part deals with food, medicine, clothing and shelter. Since time immemorial, plant has been linked to human livelihood fulfilling our daily requirements for food, medicine, clothing and shelter. Knowledge of the industrial, medicinal and edible plants is very important in the everyday life of mankind. Clothing and shelter the other prime necessities of life are derived in great part from plant fibers and from wood. Drugs used to cure disease and relief suffering, are to a great extent plant products. The fourth part deals with plant hormones and plant biotechnology.
Bot 1002 : Importance of Plants
The study of "Importance of Plants" is due for much belter understanding of value of plants which supply food, shelter and clothing for human welfare and also their ecosystem services for the environment. It will also improve the awareness of environment by understanding "the fate of earth".
Bot 2101 : Survey of Plant Kingdom I ( Algae and Bryophytes)
The course includes two sections- Algae and Bryophytes. First section deals with the study of algae and economic importance of algae. The classification, thallus structure, reproduction, alternation of generation and economic importance of algae is presented with illustration and color photographs in the text. The second section deals with the study of division Bryophyta. The most primitive thalloid plants are described in division Bryophyta. The classification, thallus structure, gametophyte, reproduction, sporophyte, alternation of generation and economic importance of Hepaticopsida (liverworts), Anthocerotopsida (hornworts) and Bryopsida (mosses) are mentioned in three separate chapters, respectively.
Bot 2102 : Angiosperms I
Angiosperms are flowering plants, belong to the kingdom Plantae. The angiosperms make up the division Magnoliophyta and may be grouped into two major plant group, dicotyledonae or Magnoliopsida and Monocotyledonae or Liliopsida. The Dicotyledonae is comprised of the dicotyledon and eudicotyledons whereas the Monocotyledonae consists of the Monocotyledons. In the present text, forty nine families has been described in detail of which three are from basal family, two from magnoliid, fifteen from monocots and twenty six are from Eudicots. The order and families have been arranged according to the phylogenetic system of classification of Angiosperms phylogeny groups APG III 2009. The most prominent feature of angiosperms are the possessing of stamen (male reproductive organ) and carpel (female reproductive organ) should understand the morphology of angiosperm, especially on the specialized modified branch (flower) and the evolution of them.
Bot 2103 : Genetics
This course provides the basic theoretical information about Genetics, the study of heredity and presents some of the experiments and reasoning through which this information had been achieved. The course consists of Mendels’s Law of Heredity, the pioneering information on the principles of Genetics; Genetic Interactions and lethality; Allelic Relationship and Pleiotropism, the situation in which a gene influences more than on trait; determination of sex in organisms, the pattern of sex-linked Inheritance including that found in plants, and those characters which seem to be related to sex but are not controlled by sex-chromosomes; Quantitative, Polygenic or Multiple Factor Inheritance and finally, Genes in Population, Population genetics deal with the analysis changes in gene frequencies in a population over time and the application of theorem and that alter gene frequency. AT the end of each chapter, comprehension questions are given as a True/False and a completion type by which the student can test their own ability of attainment of knowledge. Problems on Genetics are also included that can be used in practical classes, which can measure the theoretical information gained in the lecture class.
Bot 2104 : Ecology
The science of ecology is extremely diversified and it deals with the interactions organisms and the environment. The course includes seven chapter. In the first chapter, the origin, objectives, nature and hierarchy and level of ecology are introduced and the environmental and limiting factors are also provided. The environments of plants in relation to plant ecology is subdivided into another four chapters: the climatic factor, edaphic factor, topographic factor and biotic factor. The six chapter deals with species and population, change in density and dispersion, in range, in growth, in size; it also informs how extinction can occur when the biotic potential becomes negative and the population cannot recover. The last chapter presents how energy flows through a food web and explain typical pyramids of numbers, biomass, and energy in ecosystems, describe the factors that contribute to an organism's ecological niche and fundamental niche, explain the four premises of evolution by natural selection as proposed and describe ecological succession.
Bot 2105 : Introduction to Evolution
The biological evolution is a change in the genetic make up of a population from generation to generation. It included the fundamental properties of life origin of life, evolution of earth and early life environment of earth, geological evidence for early life on earth, synthesis of organic compounds on early earth, evolution to atmosphere, the emergence of the ozone layer, how the biosphere affects the atmosphere. It provided chemical evolution in purebiotic soup other prebiotic compound, primitive and heredity compound, early monomers or biomolecules, macromolecules, from proto cell to true cell, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, early stages of eukaryotic evolution, origin of multicellular organisms and the six kingdoms of living things.
Bot 2106 : Survey of Plant Kingdom II (Pteridophyte, Gymnophyte & Fungi)
In the Survey of Plant Kingdom II, Pteridophyte, Gymnophyte & Fungi describe as three sections. Pteridophytes (ferns and lycophytes) are free-sporing vascular plants that have a life cycle with alternating, free-living gametophyte and sporophyte phases that are independent at maturity. Gymnosperms are plants which bear naked seeds i.e. the ovules and the seeds that develop from these ovules after fertilization are not enclose in fruit wall. Fungi are a group of eukaryotic microorganisms that lack chlorophyll. Section I deals with classification, types of stele and general character of Pteridophyte. In the section II, description and classification of Gymnosperms include. Section III deals with the relative plants of fungi.
Bot 2107 : Angiosperms II
Angiosperms are flowering plants, belong to the kingdom Plantae. The angiosperms make up the division Magnoliophyta and maybe grouped into two major plant group, dicotyledonae or Magnoliopsida and Monocotyledonae or Liliopsida. The Dicotyledonae is comprised of the dicotyledon and eudicotyledons whereas the Monocotyledonae consists of the Monocotyledons. In the present text, forty nine families has been described in detail of which three are from basal family, two from magnoliid, fifteen from monocots and twenty six are from Eudicots. The order and families have been arranged according to the phylogenetic system of classification of Angiosperms phylogeny groups APG III 2009. The most prominent feature of angiosperms are the possessing of stamen (male reproductive organ) and carpel (female reproductive organ) should understand the morphology of angiosperm, especially on the specialized modified branch (flower) and the evolution of them.
Bot 2108 : Cytogenetics
Cytogenetics consists of genetics materials ; the materials that constructed the genetic materials, how genetic materials governed the function of inherited of the organism, the production of extract offspring from parents that genetic materials carried all the information; Chromosomes structures, their function, their way of duplication and their role in the heredity mechanisms; Construction of chromosomes, their replication in role of heredity; Chromosomes is not always stable in the cells, what kind of sources can change the structure, constitution and shape, chromosomes aberration can effect and affect the function and characters of organisms; Linkage of chromosomes, complete linkage and incomplete linkage, exchange of chromosomes segments, construction of chromosomes map for breeding experiment by using the results of test cross progeny of trihybrid; Source of chromosomes variation in different species, chromosomes multiplication effected on the appearance, structure and function of the organisms, polyploidy in organism; Epigenetics, the effect and inheritance of epigenetics, relationship between epigenetics and environments, the connection between human disease and epigenetics.
Bot 2109 : Horticulture
A course in horticulture for undergraduate students interested in higher plants and how they grow. The course includes six chapters, which are Introduction to Horticulture, Growth and Development of Plants, Abiotic Factors, Plants Propagation, Post Production Technology, and Landscaping. The purpose of this course is two-fold to provide an opportunity for the student to contribute the fundamental processes of the growth and development of plants and to remind an appreciation of the significance of horticulture in human affairs. Finally, this course is proved more relevant to and more easily comprehensible by students on tropical fruits, flowers and vegetables not only in Myanmar but also in other tropical countries.
Bot 2110 : Plant Pathology
Plant pathology or phytopathology is the science dealing with plant diseases and their control. Plant pathologists study plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and parasitic plants. Plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and virus like organism of each crops are covered, describing their history, distribution, losses incurred, symptoms, latest diagnostic tool, epidemiology and integrated management approaches including cultural, chemicals, genetic resources, and bio control agent being adopted world-wide. It provides a comprehensive and critical review of various pests and their control.
Bot 3101 : Medicinal Plants
The overall objective of this course is to improve students understanding of the uses and effects of medicinal plants, including herbal supplements, on people and their cultures or societies. The course topics will be taught from the perspective of how different cultures utilize medicinal plants. This is the logical approach because the common denominator among cultures is the 'human-ness', not the plants, which vary widely within and across continents. Students will learn how different cultures perceive diseases and then utilize plants to treat them. Currently medicinal plant usage is quite common, but how that use of medicinal plants is perceived depends on the society where they are used. The latter part of the course focuses on how societies in developed countries perceive, use and regulate plant medicines or herbal supplements. Finally, because all plants with bioactive compounds can’t always be regulated, throughout the course students will learn how to evaluate claims made of specific plants and herbal supplements and will learn where to find reliable information about those plants and products.
Bot 3102 : Plant Cytology and Anatomy
Plant cytology is the science which studies the structure of all normal and abnormal components of plant cells. Plant anatomy is a branch of botany concerned with the internal structure of plants. The detailed study of the elements and tissues of which the plant is constructed enables a better understanding of adaptation to special functions as well as of the adaptation of entire plants to different environmental conditions.
Bot 3103 : Plant Physiology I
Plant physiology includes the study of all chemical and physical processes of plants. It includes many aspects of plant life, including plants and their physiological processes. In the first part of these modules, students can learn on green plants and some basic physiological concepts and theories, colloidal system, diffusion, osmosis and imbibitions, transpiration, water movement in plant and plant translocation.
Bot 3104 : Environmental Biology
The environment is the sum total of physical and biotic conditions influencing the responses of the organisms. It included on environment and mainly describe on definition of atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere, about the types of abiotic environmental factors and physiographic factors, three highlight on the biotic environmental factors. It provided on population characteristics, dynamics, growth rate of population, dispersion, regulation of population size, environment pollution and consists of conservation for natural resources and management.
Bot 3105 : Floristics and Herbarium Techniques
Floristics is a study which involves taxonomic identification and listing of all plant species present in a community and the list so prepared gives floristic composition of the communities. To achieve a floristic study the plant taxonomist must have a holistic ecosystematic approach to have an understanding of individuals and populations in the field. This approach (1) learning and observing the distinguishing and diagnostic characters of taxa, (2) discovering the limiting factors in the distribution of species, (3) discerning the role of individuals in the ecosystem, (4) detecting evolutionary mechanisms at work, and (5) determining the phonetic and phylogenetic relationships of diverse organisms. Enough field trips should be taken during a study for the student to understand fundamental biotic, abiotic, spatial, and temporal relationships, to learn how to find the maximum diversity in the region, how to collect and care for specimens, how to distinguish life forms and dispersal mechanisms, how to classify or identify different communities and habitats, how to recognize families, genera and dominant species in the field of study area, and to introduced to fundamental population and geographical principles. Herbarium techniques involves a series of operations, such as collection, pressing, drying and poisoning, mounting and stitching, labeling, filling and deposition.
Bot 3107 : Cell Biology
The focus of Cell Biology is the study of the structure and function of the cell. In this course we will focus on Eukaryotic cell biology and will cover topics such as membrane structure and composition, transport, and trafficking; the cytoskeleton and cell movement; the breakdown of macromolecules and generation of energy; and the integration of cells into tissues. We will also cover important cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cancer cell biology. Throughout the semester we will attempt to relate defects in these various cellular processes to human diseases to help gain a better understanding for what happens.
Bot 3108 : Advanced Genetics
An advanced genetic, the generally knowing these genetics must learn more detail on their component, their construction, chemical constituent their changes and their transformation etc. In the first chapter, the use of the understanding chromosome in broad fields, the aim and object of studying chromosomes were emphasized and discuss. In the second chapter, the genetic material, they have and how do they function and transmitted to the next generation. In the third chapter, how many step and what process do the DNA replication have were emphasize, and what kinds of enzymes that catalyze the replication in what step and in what way were also discuss in this chapter. In the fourth chapter, the transcription and translation from DNA to RNA, the essential three kinds of RNA in producing protein were also stated and discuss. In the last Chapter V, the three step of polypeptide synthesis , then producing smaller peptide from bigger one and it is designated as proteins, enzymes and other things needs for organisms were produced from its were also discussed.
Bot 3109 : Plant Physiology II
Plant physiology is the study of the plant way of life includes the function and processes occurring in plants; the vital processes occurring in plants and how plants work. In the later part contains the basic knowledge of plant physiology for students such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, plant growth and development, plant growth regulator (plant hormone) and plant nutrition.
Bot 3110 : Applied Ecology
Applied ecology focus on major topical issues of the day. The major part of the module is concerned with management of land, especially in relation to food production. The course includes two parts- exploitation and Agriculture, and water and pollution conservation and exotic species. First parts deal with the growth of human population, fisheries maximum sustainable yields (MSY) the farming of monoculture, biological control. Second parts deal with smog, the ozone layers, sewage and eutrophication, biodiversity, conservation in practice, and introduction of exotic species.
Bot 3111 : Biochemistry I
Biochemistry called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical process give rise to the incredible deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid and other biomolecules-although increasingly processes rather than individuals molecules are the main focus. Over the last 40 years biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms.
Bot 4101 : Plant Systematics
Plant systematics is the science of botanical diversity. The major objective for plant systematics are to provide a scheme of classification to express phenetic, natural or phylogenetic relationships, to provide a convenient methods for identification, naming and describing plant taxa to provide and understanding of evolutionary process and relationship. The fundamental aim of systematic is to discover all the branches of the evolutionary tree of life, to document all the changes that have occurred during the evolution of these branches and describe all the species the tips of these branches. Systematic is the study of the biological diversity that exist on Earth today and its evolutionary history.
Bot 4102 : Pharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy is the scientific study of the effect of drugs and chemicals on living organisms whose a drug can be broadly defined as any chemical substance, natural or synthetic, which affects a biological system. Pharmacognosy is closely related to botany and plant chemistry and, indeed, both originated from the earlier scientific studies on medicinal plants. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, the subject had developed mainly on the botanical side, being concerned with the description and identification of drugs, both in the whole state and in powder, and with their history, commerce, collection, preparation and storage. A complete understanding of medicinal plants involves a number of disciplines including commerce, botany, horticulture, chemistry, enzymology, genetics, quality control, and pharmacology.
Bot 4103 : Microbiology
The course include four parts. First part deals with discovery of microorganisms. Second part deals with instrumentation in microbiology. Third part deals with method in microbiology and fourth part deals with structure of microbial cells. We have tried to achieve an appropriate balance between microbiological fundamentals and applications.
Bot 4104 : Plant Tissue Culture
This course explains the basic concepts in plant tissue culture and is primarily intended for beginners in the subject. Knowledge of plant tissue culture is mandatory for students of Botany who possesses the background of plant cells and tissues. Plant tissue culture has an important impact on the plant production and improvement during the last decades. Although plant tissue culture belongs to the technologies which are applied in plant biotechnology, the plant tissue culture techniques require a solid knowledge as well as practical skills for many areas of agriculture.
Bot 4106 : Mineral Nutrition of Plant
Plants nutrition is the study of the chemical element and compounds necessary for plant growth and metabolism. Plants used inorganic minerals for nutrition that is organic matter decomposition of animals, plant and other decaying living things and rocks. There are 14 essential plant nutrients, nutrients and water absorbed by root from the soil. These module studied especially about ion uptake, transport of water and minerals function of macronutrient and micronutrients, relationship between mineral nutrition and plant disease and toxic of plants.
Bot 4107 : Biochemistry II
Biochemistry is the branch of science concerned with the chemical and physic-chemical process and substances that occur within living organisms. The process and substances with which the science of biochemistry is concerned abnormal brain biochemistry. Biochemistry is the study of biological phenomena at the molecular level. It aim is to understand the fundamental chemical principles that govern complex biological system. Biochemistry has many application that can help the human race and that is important to understand how biological organisms function at the chemical level.
Bot 4108 : Plant Biotechnology
Plant biotechnology is a set of techniques used to adapt plants for specific needs or opportunities. Plants biotechnology that assist in developing new varieties and traits including genetic and genomics, maker-assisted selection and transgenic (genetic engineered) crops. In this course, introduction to biotechnology including the historical development; four organic macromolecules and the codon-anticodon interaction. Concept of gene from one gene one enzyme to packaging of DNA; plasmid and vectors; principle of recombinant technology together with gene in different host organisms; gene modification and expression vectors assigning how important must transferred gene be express at high rate to produce desired protein in large quantity. Biofuels from microalgae including efficient use of sunlight, reduction of energy input, scarcity of raw materials, lipid accumulation, strain improvement, biorefinery, and lifecycle assessment are incorporated.
Bot 4109 : Applied Microbiology
This module covers the application of microorganisms. The course involved microbiology in the biological world, environmental microbiology, water and waste treatment, microbiology of food, beverage and medicine and bioleaching. This paper provides a balanced introduction to all major areas of microbiology for a variety of students. This course is suitable for orientations ranging from basic microbiology to applied microbiology. Students preparing for careers in biotechnology, industrial microbiology, and environmental engineering will find the course just as useful as those aiming for careers in research, teaching, and industry.
Bot 4110 : Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity on biological diversity is used to describe the immerse variety and richness of life on Earth. The first chapter introduces on biological diversity and mainly describe on definition of biodiversity, the types of biodiversity and important of biodiversity. Chapter two highlight on the threats to biodiversity. The third chapter represents on the value of biodiversity. Chapter four presents information on wildlife, fisheries and endangered species. All inclusions in this chapter are totally based on information of North America. The last chapter presents biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.
Bot 4112 : Biostatistics I
Biostatistics is the application of statistic which is used in to solve in biological problems that is data collection, analyzed, present and interpret data. This module encompasses in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, plant species diversity, fishery to analysis of data from experiments to get exactly result.
Bot 3201 : Medicinal Plants
The overall objective of this course is to improve students understanding of the uses and effects of medicinal plants, including herbal supplements, on people and their cultures or societies. The course topics will be taught from the perspective of how different cultures utilize medicinal plants. This is the logical approach because the common denominator among cultures is the 'human-ness', not the plants, which vary widely within and across continents. Students will learn how different cultures perceive diseases and then utilize plants to treat them. Currently medicinal plant usage is quite common, but how that use of medicinal plants is perceived depends on the society where they are used. The latter part of the course focuses on how societies in developed countries perceive, use and regulate plant medicines or herbal supplements. Finally, because all plants with bioactive compounds can’t always be regulated, throughout the course students will learn how to evaluate claims made of specific plants and herbal supplements and will learn where to find reliable information about those plants and products.
Bot 3202 : Plant Cytology and Anatomy
Plant cytology is the science which studies the structure of all normal and abnormal components of plant cells. Plant anatomy is a branch of botany concerned with the internal structure of plants. The detailed study of the elements and tissues of which the plant is constructed enables a better understanding of adaptation to special functions as well as of the adaptation of entire plants to different environmental conditions.
Bot 3203 : Plant Physiology I
Plant physiology includes the study of all chemical and physical processes of plants. It includes many aspects of plant life, including plants and their physiological processes. In the first part of these modules, students can learn on green plants and some basic physiological concepts and theories, colloidal system, diffusion, osmosis and imbibitions, transpiration, water movement in plant and plant translocation.
Bot 3204 : Environmental Biology
The environment is the sum total of physical and biotic conditions influencing the responses of the organisms. It included on environment and mainly describe on definition of atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere, about the types of abiotic environmental factors and physiographic factors, three highlight on the biotic environmental factors. It provided on population characteristics, dynamics, growth rate of population, dispersion, regulation of population size, environment pollution and consists of conservation for natural resources and management.
Bot 3205 : Floristics and Herbarium Techniques
Floristics is a study which involves taxonomic identification and listing of all plant species present in a community and the list so prepared gives floristic composition of the communities. To achieve a floristic study the plant taxonomist must have a holistic ecosystematic approach to have an understanding of individuals and populations in the field. This approach (1) learning and observing the distinguishing and diagnostic characters of taxa, (2) discovering the limiting factors in the distribution of species, (3) discerning the role of individuals in the ecosystem, (4) detecting evolutionary mechanisms at work, and (5) determining the phonetic and phylogenetic relationships of diverse organisms. Enough field trips should be taken during a study for the student to understand fundamental biotic, abiotic, spatial, and temporal relationships, to learn how to find the maximum diversity in the region, how to collect and care for specimens, how to distinguish life forms and dispersal mechanisms, how to classify or identify different communities and habitats, how to recognize families, genera and dominant species in the field of study area, and to introduced to fundamental population and geographical principles. Herbarium techniques involves a series of operations, such as collection, pressing, drying and poisoning, mounting and stitching, labeling, filling and deposition.
Bot 3207 : Cell Biology
The focus of Cell Biology is the study of the structure and function of the cell. In this course we will focus on Eukaryotic cell biology and will cover topics such as membrane structure and composition, transport, and trafficking; the cytoskeleton and cell movement; the breakdown of macromolecules and generation of energy; and the integration of cells into tissues. We will also cover important cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and cancer cell biology. Throughout the semester we will attempt to relate defects in these various cellular processes to human diseases to help gain a better understanding for what happens.
Bot 3208 : Advanced Genetics
An advanced genetic, the generally knowing these genetics must learn more detail on their component, their construction, chemical constituent their changes and their transformation etc. In the first chapter, the use of the understanding chromosome in broad fields, the aim and object of studying chromosomes were emphasized and discuss. In the second chapter, the genetic material, they have and how do they function and transmitted to the next generation. In the third chapter, how many step and what process do the DNA replication have were emphasize, and what kinds of enzymes that catalyze the replication in what step and in what way were also discuss in this chapter. In the fourth chapter, the transcription and translation from DNA to RNA, the essential three kinds of RNA in producing protein were also stated and discuss. In the last Chapter V, the three step of polypeptide synthesis , then producing smaller peptide from bigger one and it is designated as proteins, enzymes and other things needs for organisms were produced from its were also discussed.
Bot 3209 : Plant Physiology II
Plant physiology is the study of the plant way of life includes the function and processes occurring in plants; the vital processes occurring in plants and how plants work. In the later part contains the basic knowledge of plant physiology for students such as photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, plant growth and development, plant growth regulator (plant hormone) and plant nutrition.
Bot 3210 : Applied Ecology
Applied ecology focus on major topical issues of the day. The major part of the module is concerned with management of land, especially in relation to food production. The course includes two parts- exploitation and Agriculture, and water and pollution conservation and exotic species. First parts deal with the growth of human population, fisheries maximum sustainable yields (MSY) the farming of monoculture, biological control. Second parts deal with smog, the ozone layers, sewage and eutrophication, biodiversity, conservation in practice, and introduction of exotic species.
Bot 3211 : Biochemistry I
Biochemistry called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical process give rise to the incredible deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid and other biomolecules-although increasingly processes rather than individuals molecules are the main focus. Over the last 40 years biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells, which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms.
Bot 4201 : Plant Systematics
Plant systematics is the science of botanical diversity. The major objective for plant systematics are to provide a scheme of classification to express phenetic, natural or phylogenetic relationships, to provide a convenient methods for identification, naming and describing plant taxa to provide and understanding of evolutionary process and relationship. The fundamental aim of systematic is to discover all the branches of the evolutionary tree of life, to document all the changes that have occurred during the evolution of these branches and describe all the species the tips of these branches. Systematic is the study of the biological diversity that exist on Earth today and its evolutionary history.
Bot 4202 : Pharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy is the scientific study of the effect of drugs and chemicals on living organisms whose a drug can be broadly defined as any chemical substance, natural or synthetic, which affects a biological system. Pharmacognosy is closely related to botany and plant chemistry and, indeed, both originated from the earlier scientific studies on medicinal plants. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, the subject had developed mainly on the botanical side, being concerned with the description and identification of drugs, both in the whole state and in powder, and with their history, commerce, collection, preparation and storage. A complete understanding of medicinal plants involves a number of disciplines including commerce, botany, horticulture, chemistry, enzymology, genetics, quality control, and pharmacology.
Bot 4203 : Microbiology
The course include four parts. First part deals with discovery of microorganisms. Second part deals with instrumentation in microbiology. Third part deals with method in microbiology and fourth part deals with structure of microbial cells. We have tried to achieve an appropriate balance between microbiological fundamentals and applications.
Bot 4204 : Plant Tissue Culture
This course explains the basic concepts in plant tissue culture and is primarily intended for beginners in the subject. Knowledge of plant tissue culture is mandatory for students of Botany who possesses the background of plant cells and tissues. Plant tissue culture has an important impact on the plant production and improvement during the last decades. Although plant tissue culture belongs to the technologies which are applied in plant biotechnology, the plant tissue culture techniques require a solid knowledge as well as practical skills for many areas of agriculture.
Bot 4206 : Mineral Nutrition of Plant
Plants nutrition is the study of the chemical element and compounds necessary for plant growth and metabolism. Plants used inorganic minerals for nutrition that is organic matter decomposition of animals, plant and other decaying living things and rocks. There are 14 essential plant nutrients, nutrients and water absorbed by root from the soil. These module studied especially about ion uptake, transport of water and minerals function of macronutrient and micronutrients, relationship between mineral nutrition and plant disease and toxic of plants.
Bot 4207 : Biochemistry II
Biochemistry is the branch of science concerned with the chemical and physic-chemical process and substances that occur within living organisms. The process and substances with which the science of biochemistry is concerned abnormal brain biochemistry. Biochemistry is the study of biological phenomena at the molecular level. It aim is to understand the fundamental chemical principles that govern complex biological system. Biochemistry has many application that can help the human race and that is important to understand how biological organisms function at the chemical level.
Bot 4208 : Plant Biotechnology
Plant biotechnology is a set of techniques used to adapt plants for specific needs or opportunities. Plants biotechnology that assist in developing new varieties and traits including genetic and genomics, maker-assisted selection and transgenic (genetic engineered) crops. In this course, introduction to biotechnology including the historical development; four organic macromolecules and the codon-anticodon interaction. Concept of gene from one gene one enzyme to packaging of DNA; plasmid and vectors; principle of recombinant technology together with gene in different host organisms; gene modification and expression vectors assigning how important must transferred gene be express at high rate to produce desired protein in large quantity. Biofuels from microalgae including efficient use of sunlight, reduction of energy input, scarcity of raw materials, lipid accumulation, strain improvement, biorefinery, and lifecycle assessment are incorporated.
Bot 4209 : Applied Microbiology
This module covers the application of microorganisms. The course involved microbiology in the biological world, environmental microbiology, water and waste treatment, microbiology of food, beverage and medicine and bioleaching. This paper provides a balanced introduction to all major areas of microbiology for a variety of students. This course is suitable for orientations ranging from basic microbiology to applied microbiology. Students preparing for careers in biotechnology, industrial microbiology, and environmental engineering will find the text just as useful as those aiming for careers in research, teaching, and industry.
Bot 4210 : Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity on biological diversity is used to describe the immerse variety and richness of life on Earth. The first chapter introduces on biological diversity and mainly describe on definition of biodiversity, the types of biodiversity and important of biodiversity. Chapter two highlight on the threats to biodiversity. The third chapter represents on the value of biodiversity. Chapter four presents information on wildlife, fisheries and endangered species. All inclusions in this chapter are totally based on information of North America. The last chapter presents biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.
Bot 4212 : Biostatistics I
Biostatistics is the application of statistic which is used in to solve in biological problems that is data collection, analyzed, present and interpret data. This module encompasses in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, plant species diversity, fishery to analysis of data from experiments to get exactly result.
Bot 5201 : Industrial Microbiology
There had been many necessary topics to share the knowledge of biotechnology as well as in practical works for the post -graduate students who may have incomplete background knowledge to Microbiology that played a major role in the understanding of basic biotechnology. Virtually all aspects of basic and applied microbiology as well as biotechnology and allied topics expounded moderately. The linkage and interfaces between biotechnology on the one hand, and general biology, environmental science, agriculture, industry, pharmaceutical science, and biosafety on the other hand. In this attempt, some overlap has crept in there with other microbiology texts of undergraduate courses, but the principle goal has been to make this text particularly useful for students who wish to study microbiology and biotechnology.
Bot 5202 : Advanced Plant Physiology I
Advanced plant physiology I is to study of plant physiology which concerned with plant respiration, physicochemistry of secondary plant products, phytosynthesis, converting of chemical energy, assimilation of inorganic nutrients transport and translocation, growth and development and plant stress physiology.
Bot 5203 : Advanced Pharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy is important in countries having their own systems of medicine in which plants are important components. The course includes plant materials, morphological characters, chemical and physical tests, chromatographic and test for medicinal properties.
Bot 5204 : Molecular Genetics
Molecular Genetics is a branch of genetics dealing with the structure and activity of genetic material at the molecular level. This text book include seven chapters: Introduced the basis for Molecular Genetics, Genes are DNA, From genes to genomes, How many genes are there?, Recombination and repair of DNA, Concept gene and Application of DNA.
Bot 5205 : Plant Geography
Plant geography is the branch of botany that deals with the spatial relationships of plants both in the present and past. It also branch of science concern with describing and interpreting the uneven distribution of the earth’s plant life. The course includes three parts. First part deals with the geography of the world. Second part deals with the geography of the flowering plants. Third part deals with classification of the forests and other woody vegetation.
Bot 5206 : Evolution
Evolution is the process of change in all forms of life over generation and evolutionary biology is the study of how evolution occurs. The body of principle that describe the causal processes of evolution, such as mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection, constitutes the theory of evolution. In contrast, the theory of evolution, like all scientific theories, continues to develop as new information and ideas deepen our understanding. One of the goals of evolutionary biology are to discover the history of life on earth: that is, to determine the ancestor-descendant relationships among all species that have ever lived- their phylogeny; to determines the times at which they originated and become extinct; and to determine the origin of and the rate and course of change in their characteristics. The other goal is to understand the causal processes of evolution. Virtually all of biology bears on this vast project of understanding the causes of evolution, and reciprocally, understanding the processes of evolution informs every area of biology.
Bot 5207 : Microbial Biotechnology
The course includes the contribution of bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi to microbial biotechnology. The domain of bacteria and Archaea encompass a huge diversity of organisms that differ in their sources of energy, their sources of cell carbon or nitrogen, their metabolic pathways, the end products of their metabolism, and their ability to attack various naturally occurring organic compounds. Different bacteria and Archaea have adapted to every available climate and microenvironment on Earth. The seemingly limitless diversity of the microorganisms provides an immense pool raw material for applied microbiology.
Bot 5208 : Advanced Plant Physiology II
Advanced plant physiology II is to study of plant physiology which concerned with plant respiration, physicochemistry of secondary plant products, phytosynthesis, converting of chemical energy, assimilation of inorganic nutrients transport and translocation, growth and development and plant stress physiology.
Bot 5209 : Industrial and Economic Plants
Industrial and Economic plants is a unique balanced approach between basic botany and the applied or economic aspects of plant science. The course include nine chapters of botany and economic aspects and social implications of plants and fungi. All of plants introduce to the sources, cultivation, collection, preparation, characters, uses and the chemical constituents.
Bot 5210 : Enzymology
Botany is an important science dealing with different types of plant cells in which tremendous biochemical activities called metabolism is restlessly occurring. This is the natural process of chemical and physical changes which go on continually in all kinds of living organisms. The synthesis of necessary materials as well as degration of compounds in the cells is also occurring in the cells and these all activities are recognized as "life" by scientists all over the world. In the living cells, catabolic activity and anabolic activity are timely taken place in the face of an apparent paradox with the help of proper biocatalysts called enzymes. The greatest majority of above metabolic reactions does not take place spontaneously but interact with specific enzymes. This natural phenomenon of catalysis makes possible biological reactions essential for all the life processes. Enzyme catalysis is defined as the acceleration of a biochemical reaction by some organic substance which cannot undergo permanent chemical changes itself in the reaction system. These catalyst of biological reactions are enzymes. If the enzymes are absent in the living cell system, there will be very slow rate the pace of metabolism. For B.Sc Honours students, it is important to know the main functions of enzymes in the digestive systems in our own body.
Bot 5211 : Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany is the study of plants used by primitive and aboriginal people. Modern definition of ethnobotany has been defined as the scientific discipline concerned with the enter actions between people and plants. There are many aspects of ethnobotany, including the ways that people name and classify plants, the values placed on them, their uses and their management. It reaches across the natural and social sciences.
Bot 5212 : Environmental Education and Ethics
Environmental education is a relatively young, dynamic and immensely complex field for study and interpretation. This text book is divided into six parts. The first presents a concise history of the development of environmental education from an international perspective. Part two provides a succinct and comprehensive overview of the global agenda or the subject knowledge of environmental education. In third part, perspectives on theory and research in environmental education are introduced and discussed. Part four moves very much more into the realm of educational practice, and considers the current effectiveness of formal programmes of environmental education, and the various structural components of it that should be considered when planning programmes. In the fifth part, attention turns to what is actually happening in environmental education in the world today. Finally in part six, the text return to the core questions of how progress can be made, and how environmental education can be encouraged to maximize its potential in the twenty-first century.
Bot 611 : Evolutionary Survey of Plant Kingdom
In this subject, five chapters are divided as Algae, Bryophytes, Ferns and other vascular plant, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Chapter I deal with prokaryotic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary in green algae and life histories of red algae. Chapter II deals with characteristic features of Bryophytes, advantages of reduced Gametophytes and alternation of generation in Bryophytes. In chapter III, classification and importance of seedless vascular plants describe. In chapter IV, the role of Gymnosperms describes and chapter V deals with the seed plants :Angiosperms.
Bot 612 : Embryology and Morphogenesis
Embryology and morphogenesis is two parts. First part embryology deals with the study of all the events starting from microsporogenesis, megasporogenesis, pollination and fertilization till the development of a mature embryo. Second part morphogenesis is the study of the origin of form, thus assumes a central position in the biological science.
Bot 613 : Principle of Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the science that studies organisms in order to arrange them into groups; those organisms with similar properties are grouped together and separated from those that are different. Taxonomy can be viewed as three separate but interrelated areas: identification-the process of charactering organisms: classification-the process of arranging organisms into similar of related groups, primarily to provide easy identification and study: nomenclature-the system of assigning of names to organisms.
Bot 614 : Applied Pharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy is interdisciplinary, drawing on a board spectrum of biological and socio-scientific subjects, including botany, ethnobotany, medicinal anthropology, marine biology, microbiology, herbal medicine, chemistry (phytochemistry), pharmaceutics, clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice. Applied pharmacognosy consists of medical ethnobotany, the study of traditional use of plants for medicinal purposes; ethnopharmacology, the study of the pharmacological qualities of traditional medicinal substances; the study of phytotheraphy (the medicinal uses of plant extracts); and phytochemistry, the study of chemicals derived from plants (including the identification of new drug constituents derived from plant sources.
Bot 621 : Advanced Microbiology
Microbiology, study of microorganisms, or microbes, a diverse group of generally minute, simple life-forms that include bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The field is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of such organisms and with ways of both exploiting and controlling their activities. The 17th-century discovery of living forms existing invisible to the naked eye was a significant milestone in the history of science, for from the 13th century onward it had been postulated that “invisible” entities were responsible for decay and disease. Abundant, although usually unnoticed, microorganisms provide ample evidence of their presence—sometimes unfavorably, as when they cause decay of materials or spread diseases, and sometimes favorably, as when they ferment sugar to wine and beer, cause bread to rise, flavour cheeses, and produce valued products such as antibiotics and insulin. Microorganisms are of incalculable value to Earth’s ecology, disintegrating animal and plant remains and converting them to simpler substances that can be recycled in other organisms.
Bot 622 : Environmental Science
Environmental Science is the systematic and scientific study of our environment and our rule in it. This branch include the knowledge of pure science and to some extent social science. This paper is the study of interrelationships between human activities and the environment. And then, follow by relationships of plants and environment.
Bot 623 : Plant Biochemistry and Physiology
Biotechnology is a board area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences, such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests. Biotechnology is technology that utilizes biological systems, living organisms or parts of this develop or create different products. Brewing and baking bread are examples of processes that fall within the concept of biotechnology (use of yeast living organisms ) to producer the desired product. Types of biotechnology include medicinal biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology, nutrient supplementation, abiotic stress resistance, industrial biotechnology, strength fibers, biofuels and health care.
Bot 624 : Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
In this course, introduction to biotechnology including the histological development; four organic macromolecules and the codon-anticodon interaction. Concept of gene from one gene one enzyme to packaging of DNA; Plasmid and vectors; Principle of Recombinant Technology together with gene cloning to post-transcriptional modification and expression of desire gene in different organisms; Gene Integration and Expression Vectors and Microalgae including efficient use of sunlight, reduction of energy input, scarcity of raw materials, lipid accumulation, strain improvement, Biorefinery, and lifecycle assessment are incorporated. At the end of each unit, review questions are given to test the scale and knowledge of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology.

Dr. San Wai Aung

Professor(Head)

Dr. Tin Moe Aye

Dr. Tin Moe Aye

Professor

Dr. Zar Zar Yin

Associate Professor

Dr. Ohnmar Than

Associate Professor

Dr. Moe Sandar Shein

Associate Professor

Dr. Thandar Oo

Associate Professor

Lecturers

  • Daw Aye Aye Mar
  • Daw Ohn Mar Aung
  • Daw Su Myat Lwin
  • Daw Win Pa Pa
  • Daw Yamin Aye
  • Dr. Salai Ko Ko Oo
  • Dr. Khin Swe Swe Htun
  • Dr. Win Mar Lay
  • Daw San Nu
  • U Thaung Htike Zaw
  • Dr. Daw Khin Cho
  • Dr. Phyo Phyo Win
  • Dr. Tin Moe Phyu
  • Dr. Naw Tharaphy Aung
  • Daw May May Aung
  • Daw Nilar
  • Dr. Aye Aye Mu

Assistant Lecturer

  • Daw Aye Thet Khaing

Demonstrator

  • Daw Thae Tone Tone Aung
  • Daw Theint Theint Phyo
Mission
  • Collecting technical information, doing researches, distributing information, applying and reviewing for the society
  • Producing intellectually wise, discerning and responsible human resources
Vision
Bago University’s main goal is to produce highly qualified, competent, undergraduate human resources for the purpose of building a modern, developed nation.
Contact
Bago University
Yangon-Mandalay Highway Road, (8/9) ward, Oakthar Myothit, Bago, Bago Region, Myanmar.